The perception of biopsychosocial impacts of COVID-19 during lockdown restrictions over time in the UK – a mixed methods study

Grimwood, Sam, Stuart, Kaz ORCID logo ORCID: , Browning, Ruth, Bidmead, Elaine ORCID logo ORCID: and Winn-Read, Thea (2021) The perception of biopsychosocial impacts of COVID-19 during lockdown restrictions over time in the UK – a mixed methods study. Journal of Ideas in Health, 4 (2). pp. 402-414.

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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the health of individuals physically, mentally, and socially. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of this impact across the pandemic from a biopsychosocial stance.

Methods: A survey created by the research team was employed between November 2020 and February 2021 across social media, relevant organizations, and networks. The survey incorporated 5-time points across the different stages of the pandemic, covering biological, psychological, and social. There were 5 items for each survey (Very Positive affect to Very Negative affect), and analysis was undertaken using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon Tests, as well as correlations between the three domains, were implemented.

Results: This study included 164 participants (77.0% female and 35.0% male) across 24 out of 38 counties in the UK. The impact of COVID-19 on biological domain was significant across the five data points χ2(4) = 63.99, p < 0.001, psychological χ2(4) = 118.939, p <0.001 and socially χ2(4) = 186.43, p <0.001. Between the 5 data points, 4 out of 5 had a negative impact, however between the first stage of lockdown and the easing of restrictions, findings for biological (Z=-2.35, p <0.05), psychological (Z=-6.61, p < 0.001), and socially (Z = -8.61, p <0.001) were positive. Negative correlations between the three domains across the pandemic are apparent, but in later stages, the biological domain had a positive correlation r = 0.52, p < 0.001.

Conclusion: The data shows a negative impact from the self-reported perception of wellbeing from a biopsychosocial stance over time, as well as perceiving the three domains to interact negatively. To address these biopsychosocial issues, the research implies a place-based integrated recovery effort is needed, addressing biological, psychological, and social issues simultaneously. Further research should investigate biopsychosocial health among a more generalizable population.

Item Type: Article
Journal / Publication Title: Journal of Ideas in Health
Publisher: JIH
ISSN: 2645-9248
Departments: Centre for Research in Health and Society (CRIHS)
Institute of Health > Social Work, Children and Families
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Depositing User: Kaz Stuart
Date Deposited: 03 Sep 2021 12:23
Last Modified: 15 Feb 2024 12:19


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